Older developing country nationals extend retirement age
An old Russian craftsman is making wooden barrels, and the workers in this traditional industry are not too young.
“Is 45 years old too old?
Is 55 years old redundant?
We are even hired by people of 65 years old.
“This is the advertising word of a German engineering company.
At present, many countries in the world are welcoming the tide of aging.
Under the impact of this wave, when to retire becomes a new worldwide problem.
Too many countries have used the extension of retirement age to alleviate the various pressures brought about by aging. Although this approach can achieve obvious results, it has also brought various problems and triggered a drastic change.
Retirement ages vary from country to country. According to the degree of economic development and demographic structure, countries have different regulations on retirement age.
Professor Mu Guangzong, a population expert at Peking University, told reporters.
At present, there are 165 countries in the world that specify the retirement age (the age of pensions).
Denmark, Iceland and Norway have the highest retirement ages: both men and women are 67 years old.
Swaziland, Zambia, Kuwait and other countries are the lowest, both men and women retire at the age of 50.
According to statistics, the average retirement age of men worldwide is about 60 years old, and women are about 58 years old.
Among them, countries with the same retirement age for men and women account for the majority.
“Overall, the statutory retirement age of the budget exceeded expectations, which also reflects the difference in life expectancy.
Professor Mu Guangzong said.
The mandatory retirement age has also caused many people’s dissatisfaction.
Not long ago, the British HSBC Group conducted a survey on “Future Retirement” and visited 20 countries and regions on five continents (the total population of these countries and regions accounted for 62% of the global population).
10,000 people over the age of 18.
The survey found that most people believe that an individual’s choice or ability to prove is the first criterion for determining the retirement age, and that the older people are more likely to have this view.
In general, the retirement age will be extended. One of the hottest topics discussed by the British is the government’s just-released white paper on retirement system reform. According to this plan, the retirement age of the British is gradually changed to 65 years old and 60 years old.Raised to 2044, both men and women are 68 years old.
The British approach is not a special case.
Absolutely, under the impact of aging, extending the retirement age has become a choice for many countries in the world, especially cumulative.
As early as 1983, the then President of the United States, Reagan signed the Social Security Act, stipulating that from the current year to 2017, the retirement age in the United States will gradually increase from 65 to 67.
In June last year, in order to alleviate the pressure of heavy social security spending, the US Senate Finance Committee Chairman Grassley suggested that the retirement age of Americans would be raised to 69 years.
On April 1 this year, Japan’s “Elderly Employment Security Law” was implemented, and people who were guaranteed to have work intentions and abilities were hired to be 65 years old. According to the original regulations, they would retire at the age of 60.
Japan’s Ministry of Health and Welfare, Kawasaki Eiji, said on May 28 that “80% of 70-year-olds should be employed.
Not long ago, the German government also announced that it would raise the retirement age from the current 65 to 67 in 2011.
In 2000, the Netherlands allowed the reintegration of retired workers over 60 years old and their families.
Brazil raised its retirement age from 55 to 60 in 2003.
The Germany-Germany “Der Spiegel” magazine, which has caused controversy to extend the retirement age, commented that extending the retirement age can greatly reduce the pressure on pensions, and the government is the biggest beneficiary.
“The gradually increasing productivity is getting lower and lower, people’s life expectancy is getting longer and longer, and the population is becoming more and more aging, which makes the pension pressure too much.
In this context, it is a natural logic to extend the retirement age and turn the person who takes the money into a person who pays for it.
Professor Mu Guangzong said.
Bert Lulu, chairman of the German government’s social policy advisory committee, pointed out that according to the current retirement age, many people are actually in the period of richest knowledge reserves. At this time, retirement can only be a waste of talent.
At the same time as retirement retirement age, by reducing the working hours of working staff, people can “share” positions and increase the participation rate of the labor market, which can effectively relieve the pressure on employment.
The 42-year-old German Wei Haien has different opinions on these views.He said: “Extended retirement age means that we need to re-join the ‘shift’ for the elderly, and we must pay 2 years of pension to enjoy the early income.
“There are not a few people who share the same views. During this time, employees from all over Germany have antiqued protests.
There are also many elderly people in the UK across the sea from Germany to protest the government’s extension of retirement age.
Many young people are also worried that this may squeeze their employment opportunities.
Some young Japanese people who are looking for a job told reporters, “Companies want to retain experienced seniors. It is even harder for us to find a satisfactory job and find the ideal position.
“To minimize the impact of extending the retirement age, and to take a step-by-step approach.
For example, the 67-year-old retirement rule enacted by the United States in 1983 did not begin until 2000; in 2003, workers aged 65 and over will be extended for two months; in 2004, they will be extended for four months; and so on,In 2015, it was extended to 2 years.
Initially it was to give everyone enough time to make adjustments.
”We are not the same as the West.” “We are different from the West. We are aging too fast.
When the Secretary-General retired, the chief representative of the Beijing Office of the Korea Institute of Foreign Economic Policy, Chi Wanzhen, was suddenly worried.
He told reporters that the growing population growth rate is very slow and has time to adjust. In some periods, especially in South Korea, China, Singapore, Thailand and other East Asian countries, the birth rate has dropped rapidly and will face the present in a short time.Faced with the pressure of aging.
In South Korea, this problem has suddenly become more prominent.
South Korea was once one of the most successful countries in family planning. Since the 1960s, South Korea has implemented a “small-scale family plan”, and the birth rate has continued to decline. China has also studied it.
In the 1990s, the declining birth rate began to worry some Koreans: the population fell again, causing negative social impact.
After a nationwide debate, South Korea’s population policy has undergone a fundamental change, from the original control of growth to encouraging growth, but it has not achieved results, and the birth rate continues to decline.
In 2004, South Korea became the country with the lowest birth rate in the world.
Population experts worry that South Korea will be unable to develop its economy due to a severe shortage of labor.
Chi Wanxi said: “In a few decades, South Korea will face the challenge of labor shortage.
In the face of serious aging, most Koreans have retired in advance.
Chi Wanzhen explained that the current legal retirement age in Korea is: business workers are 55 years old, civil servants are 60 years old, and teachers are 65 years old.
However, after the 1997 Asian financial crisis, the Korean economy was very sluggish, and early retirement was also helpless.
“There is a saying in South Korea that by the age of 45, we have to think about arranging life after retirement.
“Chi Wanwan’s unit originally had more than 200 researchers, and now there are only more than 100 people.
More than one third of the people retired early.
“Just a few days ago, some South Korean politicians put forward proposals to guarantee the current retirement age.
There is no consensus on whether to extend the retirement age.
Under the expectation of economic downturn, extending the retirement age will increase the burden on enterprises and is not conducive to economic recovery.
Kim Jong-sang, a civil servant in the Ministry of Unification of Korea, also told reporters that the pensions of Korean retirees are mostly unprotected due to the impact of aging. It is said that by 2035, a penny of pensions will not be available.
Extending the retirement age is an inevitable trend. Labor shortage is a serious challenge for South Korea in the future. For Russia, this is already a realistic challenge.
“All work is the old lady” is one of the four strange Russians summed up in the Moscow Chinese circle.
This strange also reflects Russia’s embarrassing situation on the population issue.
At present, according to the relevant laws and regulations, the retirement age of Russian men is 60 years old, women are 55 years old, and then the retirement age of most countries.
But in fact, many people are “serving” in overage.
The World Bank has expressed the hope that Russia can raise the retirement age for men and women to 65, but Russia’s domestic view on extending the retirement age is at the same time.
Proponents believe that due to the continuous decline in the Russian and Russian birth rates, fewer and fewer workers have to support a gradual increase in the number of retirees.
Russia’s Pension Fund Chairman Batanov said: “Russia has a transition period when it comes to extending the retirement age. During this period, Russians can voluntarily retire at the age of 65.
After 5 to 7 years, when people are used to late retirement, they can be forced to extend their retirement age.
He believes that according to the actual situation, it can be extended by 10 to 15 years.
However, opponents believe that it is not the time to extend the retirement age. The friend of the journalist Ye Yisheev said that the average life expectancy of Russian men is only 57 years old. If the retirement age is raised to 65 years, there are still more people who have not reached retirement age.It’s gone, it’s not reasonable.
In terms of actual operation, many people in Russia are extending their retirement age.”If a person who has reached retirement age is still actively involved in the scientific work that requires him, we will not dismiss him.
However, if a young scientist loses interest in science and does not want to participate in motivated, productive work, then he will be laid off.
Russian scholar Valery Kozlov told reporters.
”From the overall trend, it is an inevitable trend to experience an increase in the average life expectancy of human beings and to extend the retirement age, but it is not easy to implement.
Professor Mu Guangzong said, “It can only be a way to alleviate the pressure of aging, but it is not the only way.